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*(Ranked by Janka hardness rating)

The Janka (or side) hardness test measures the force required to embed a .444-inch steel ball to half its diameter in wood. It is one of the best measures of the ability of a wood species to withstand denting and wear. By the same token, it is also a good indicator of how hard or easy a species is to saw or mill.

*Source: "National Wood Flooring Association Technical Publication No. A200", p.7: orig. from "Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material", Agriculture Handbook 72, Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Service, US Dept of Agriculture, revised 1987.